Rain Water Harvesting through Restoration of Village Ponds and Tanks
Rainwater harvesting is undertaken mainly to capture the run off from the seasonal rains and store it for use in times of need. The storage is made on the ground surface or underground, depending upon the topography of the land, the types of surface and sub surface soils and the underground geological formations. Storage cisterns, check dams, farm ponds, percolation ponds, Ooranis (drinking water ponds), irrigation tanks and reservoirs comprise the surface storage systems, Rain water stored in the soil profile upto its field capacity, sub surface dams constructed in deep sandy beds across rivers and streams, sumps, dug wells, filter point wells, tube wells and acquifers constitute the underground storage systems. The source of supply for all these storages is the rainfall which is highly variable.
While in the urban areas rainwater harvesting is practiced for drinking, domestic, gardening, and ground water recharge purposes, in rural areas it is undertaken more extensively for irrigation, dryland agriculture, horticulture, ground water recharge, domestic, livestock, inland fisheries, duck rearing and for multifarious other similar purposes. Each form of storage has its specific merits and uses, although from the efficiency point of view, underground storage is the best as evaporation and other losses are eliminated.